Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. Four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most dynamic economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though copper and nickel are also exported. Botswana, which is slightly smaller than Texas at 581,730 total sq km, has a population of 2,098,018 and although English is the official language a majority of the people speak Setswana.