This conference brings together scholars who study China and regions beyond China to examine the central issue of state capacity building in the developing world. What are some new dimensions of state capacity building broadly in the twenty-first century and specifically in China, as the country ascends to a middle-income status? How do changes in political and bureaucratic structures influence economic development and vice-versa? How will growing corruption, expansion of law, and new methods of communication affect state power? How is the Chinese state adapting to new challenges of governance? Can existing theories of state building explain problems in China? In turn, how can China’s reform experience challenge and inform our understanding of state building in the developing world?